A Guide to Western Composers and their music
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Robert Sherrane Taking advantage of these new sounds and new instrumental combinations, the of the second half of the nineteenth-century created richer and ever larger symphonies, ballets, and concertos. These polyphonic traditions reached their culmination in the unsurpassed works of.
Of course, secular music thrived during this period, and was performed in abundance, if not always written down. Secular music was performed throughout Europe by the of France. The French genius; Music during the renaissance essay. Many monarchs employed composers at their courts, where they were little more than servants expected to churn out music for any desired occasions. With the rise of humanism, sacred music began for the first time to break free of the confines of the Church, and a school of composers trained in the Netherlands mastered the art of polyphony in their settings of sacred music.
The romantic artists are the first in history to give to themselves the name by which they are identified. The earliest Romantic composers were all born within a few years of each other in the early years of the nineteenth century. Others developed a highly personal harmonic language and melodic style which distinguishes their music from that of the Austro-Germanic traditions. The continued modification and enhancement of existing instruments, plus the invention of new ones, led to http://homeworkmarkessay.cricket/research-projects-papers-3902 the further expansion of the symphony orchestra throughout the century. Hungarian composer continued in the traditions of the still strong Nationalist movement and fused the music of Hungarian peasants with twentieth century forms. Avant-garde composers such as explored the manipulation of rhythms rather than the usual melodic/harmonic schemes. A period when invading hordes of Vandals, Huns, and Visigoths overran Europe. The instrumental concerto became a staple of the Baroque era, and found its strongest exponent in the works of the Venetian composer. But vocal and choral music still reigned supreme during this age, and culminated in the operas and oratorios of German-born composer. From roughly 1750 to 1820, artists, architechts, and musicians moved away from the heavily ornamented styles of the Baroque and the, and instead embraced a clean, uncluttered style they thought reminiscent University of california application essay of Classical Greece. French composer was fascinated by Eastern music and the whole-tone scale, and created a style of music named after the movement in French painting called Impressionism. The Polish poet of the piano; Achieved new heights, due to the works of such masters as and others.
During the same period, the first voice of the burgeoning Romantic musical ethic can be found in the music of Viennese composer. As the many socio-political revolutions of the late eighteenth-century established new social orders and new ways of life and thought, so composers of the period broke new musical ground by adding a new emotional depth to the prevailing classical forms. The newly established aristocracies were replacing monarchs and the church as patrons of the arts, and were demanding an impersonal, but tuneful and elegant music. The Classical period reached its majestic culmination with the masterful symphonies, sonatas, and string quartets by the three great composers of the Viennese school:,, and. These years were marked by constant warfare, the absence of a Holy Roman Emperor, and the virtual disappearance of urban life. It was left for others to collect and notate the wide variety of irrepressible instrumental music of the period. Composers such as explored unusual and unorthodox harmonies and tonal schemes. Many of these turned to indigenous history and legends as plots for their operas, and to the popular folk melodies and dance rhythms of their homelands as inspiration for their symphonies and instrumental music. The greatest composer of the period,, was such a servant. Over the next next nine centuries, the newly emerging Christian Church came to dominate Europe, administering justice, instigating Holy Crusades against the East, establishing Universities, and generally dictating the destiny of music, art, and literature. And it was during these Middle Ages that Western culture saw the appearance of the first great name in music. Generally considered to be from ca. 1420 to 1600, the Renaissance (which literally means rebirth ) was a time of great cultural awakening and a flowering of the arts, letters, and sciences throughout Europe.
Two of the giants of this period are the German-born and the great Russian melodist. By the turn of the century and for the next few decades, artists of all nationalities were searching for exciting and different modes of expression. The tried-and-true genre of the symphony, albeit somewhat modified by this time, attracted such masters as and, while gave full rein to his manipulation of kaleidoscopic rhythms and instrumental colors throughout his extremely long and varied career. While many composers throughout the twentieth-century experimented in new ways with traditional instruments (such as the prepared piano used by American composer ), many of the twentieth-century s greatest composers, such as Italian opera composer and the Russian pianist/composer, remained true to the traditional forms of music history. Composers came from all over Europe to train in and around Vienna, and gradually they developed and formalized the standard musical forms that were to predominate European musical culture for the next several decades. Dances became formalized into instrumental suites and were composed by virtually all composers of the era. Yet the best composers of the time were able to break new musical ground, and in so doing succeeded in creating an entirely new style of music.
It was during the early part of the seventeenth century that the genre of opera was first created by a group of composers in Florence, Italy, and the earliest operatic masterpieces were composed by. This was a time when the many monarchies of Europe vied in outdoing each other in pride, pomp and pageantry. Dances such as the minuet and the gavotte were provided in the forms of entertaining serenades and divertimenti. At this time the Austrian capital of Vienna became the musical center of Europe, and works of the period are often referred to as being in the Viennese style. Later in the century, the field of Italian opera was dominated by, while German opera was virtually monopolized by. During the nineteenth century, composers from non-Germanic countries began looking for ways in which they might express the musical soul of their homelands.