Penelope is Odysseus faithful wife who never slept with anyone else besides Odysseus, even though she was tempted. Teiresias was a dead prophet who Odysseus went to consult in the underworld. Presents at arrival are expected, but presents at departure are not always present. As a woman weeps, lying over the body of her dear husband, who fell fighting for her city and people as he tried to beat off the pitiless day from city and children; The Greeks also believed that in a battle between good and evil, good will triumph in the end. The four most significant examples are Penelope, Eumaios, Philoitois, and Argos. And since he must have given you yours, you must even endure it. (6.188-190)Nausikaa shows maturity beyond her age by wisely telling Odysseus he must bear all the suffering sent his way. So the famous singer sang his tale, but Odysseus melted, and from under his eyes the tears ran down, drenching his cheeks. The view that good triumphs versus evil can be seen in the epic when Odysseus (good) kills all of the suitors (bad) against virtually impossible odds.
But if I go up the slope and into the shadowy forest, and lie down to sleep among the dense bushes, even if the chill and weariness let me be, and a sweet sleep comes upon me, I fear I may become spoil and prey to the wild animals. (5.465-473)Odysseus wavers between his fear of suffering and his determination to endure. (Nausikaa: ) [ ] it is Zeus himself, the Olympian, who gives people good fortune, to each single man, to the good and the bad, just as he wishes; XV, 534). The Greeks believed that the world was watched over by Zeus and other Olympian gods, and that these gods decided their future. The view that justice will emerge in the end is shown in The Odyssey when all unfaithful servants and maids are killed. This can be discerned from The Odyssey because of many instances and events in which Odysseus uses his brain’s wit and other tricks to get himself out of a risky situation. Odysseus is by “far the best of mortal men for counsel and stories” (Bk. It's not surprising that the Odyssey is full of suffering: Penelope used strength as a test for the competition for the suitors. Also, the host is responsible for being the aegis of the guest while the guest resides at his home. But they're not particularly keep-calm-and-carry-on about it—they may put up with the suffering, but they also weep, grieve, and lament. VIII, 487). Athene disguises Odysseus as a beggar and also surrounds him with a mist numerous times so that his former acquaintances will not see or recognize him. Other significant mental characteristics that the Greeks valued are faithfulness and loyalty. Odysseus suffering essay. Instead, our glimpse of the Underworld makes it look like a lot more of the same. In the Odyssey, suffering always comes from bad actions. Menelaos tells of his adventures to Telemachus, Odysseus tells of his adventures to the Phaiakians, and Odysseus tells of his false adventures to Eumaios. As Odysseus said to Demodokos, “Demodokos, above all mortals beside I prize you” (Bk. Homer uses his skill as a playwright, poet, and philosopher to inform the audience of the history, prides, and achievements of the ancient Greeks, and, also, to tell of the many values and the multi-faceted culture of the ancient Greek caste. He survives because Odysseus allows him to live because of his gift of voice from the gods. The Odyssey teaches us that it's okay for dudes to cry when they're under extreme duress. (And Odysseus is under extreme duress for, oh, about the entire epic. ) Anyway, it's not like a few tears are going to detract from Odysseus' overwhelming studliness. Find out what that little icon means. and why we're funny. Plan your future. or at least your next step. The who, what, where, when, and why of all your favorite quotes. Go behind the scenes on all your favorite films. We speak tech 2017 Shmoop University. Hospitality was giving any stranger food, warmth, shelter and comfort before asking questions such as their name, heritage, or means of transportation. The competition was to be able to string Odysseus’ bow and shoot it accurately, the prize (marriage of Penelope) going to “the one who takes the bow in his hands, strings it with greatest ease, and sends an arrow clean through all twelve axes” (Bk. Strength was needed for the discus throwing (which Odysseus excelled in), wrestling, and boxing. These characters also pray to the gods so that the gods can hear them and fulfil their wishes. (Odysseus: ) What will happen now, and what in the long outcome will befall me? And when they finally saw blood, they went crazy, laughing and cheering like it was the most exciting thing in the world. The Greeks enjoyed many recreations and pastimes, of which dancing, singing, and storytelling were dominant. VIII, 382 – 384). Theoklymenos was a prophet from a family of prophets. The Greeks also believed in “life” after death in the underworld with Hades. However, in case of a wealthy, generous, or friendly host, presents, even those with incalculable and immense values can be exchanged. The religious beliefs and aspects of the ancient Greek culture are very defined and strict. It defined your social class, and it also helped you in favour with Zeus, who is the god of travellers and guests. XVII, 292) of Odysseus.
Philoitois is the loyal ox herd who also helps Odysseus overcome the suitors. Storytelling is yet another virtue and is prized by Greeks. And there's only one way to deal with it: I myself am young and have no faith in my hands’ strength to defend a man, if anyone else picks a quarrel with him (Bk. Also, Odysseus is said to be able to match a god in wits and trickery (Bk. The Greeks had numerous values and customs, of which the primary principles are the mental characteristics of an individual, the physical characteristics of an individual, the recreations and pastimes the Greeks enjoyed, the way in which a host treats a guest, the religious aspects, and finally, the Greeks’ view on life, revealed in The Odyssey which shows and defines their cultureOne of the most prominent of the mental characteristics the ancient Greeks valued was the cleverness and the wit of an individual. Such were the pitiful tears Odysseus shed from under his brows, but they went unnoticed by all the others […]. (8.521-532)Call us crazy, but we like this: Argos is the “patient-hearted … dog” (Bk. Also, the Greeks loved competition, proven by the fact that they urged on Odysseus and Iros to fight. The view of persistence and determination succeeding is proved by the fact that Odysseus “who, after much suffering, came at lest in the twentieth year back to his own country” (Bk. The suitors always have a “desire for eating and drinking” (Bk. 1, 150) according to Telemachus. The treatment of a guest was very important in the times of the ancient Greeks. The Odyssey. 27 Jun 2004Very Much enjoyed reading this- Thanks Chris! Your awsomedidnt get through but it was goodwonderful job, well done. Penelope, Odysseus’ wife also uses her wit and trickery to get herself out of situations. Homer uses quite a few bird auguries in The Odyssey, one in the beginning to warn the suitors of Odysseus’ homecoming (Bk. Prophecies and prophet were abundant, but the supply of accurate prophecies and prophets were much less abundant, and the demands for these were high, making them scarce. They believed that persistence and determination would come through in the end. He could prophesize quite accurately from bird auguries, as shown when he prophesizes that Telemachus “shall have lordly power forever” (Bk. XXIII, 101 – 102) survived all of his shipwrecks, attacks, and other hindrances and ultimately succeeds in coming back home. Throughout The Odyssey, Greek values and the Greek culture are constantly shaped by the flow of the author’s pen, which narrates a story with an intricate plot. Eumaios is the loyal swineherd who helps Odysseus overcome the suitors. She also keeps herself hoping that Odysseus is still alive and will someday come home. XVI, 69 – 72). XXI, 75 – 76). Strength was one of the more dominantly looked upon of the physical characteristics. It's a senseless burden that all mortals must bear. Find out what that little icon means. and why we're funny. Plan your future. or at least your next step. The who, what, where, when, and why of all your favorite quotes. Go behind the scenes on all your favorite films. We speak tech 2017 Shmoop University. Odysseus tests these individuals (except the dog) to decide whether he can trust them or not. The Greeks believed that in the end of any hardship or endurance, justice would emerge and show its victorious smile to the victim. Endure. Its characters live in a world without antibiotics, painkillers, and iTunes. (They actually have to get in a car and drive to a store to buy the latest One Direction album. ) That's just the curse of mortality. He prophesized most aspects of Odysseus’ journey accurately and because of him, Odysseus was able to survive his wanderings. Telemachus feels that he cannot provide this for his father (in guise of a beggar), and is therefore ashamed. “How can I take and entertain a stranger guest in my house? XIII, 297 – 298).
Examples of good hospitality are abundant throughout The Odyssey, such as when Athene goes to Telemachus in Ithaca, when Telemachus goes to Nestor, when Telemachus goes to Menelaos, when Odysseus goes to the Phaiakians, and when Odysseus goes to Eumaios. A wide range of things can be classified as hospitality, but the general idea is always the same and cannot change. The only survivor of those who had plotted against Odysseus was Phemios, the singer of the suitors. As Telemachus says about the suitors, “This is all they think about, the lyre and the singing” (Bk. 1, 159). The epic allows the modern-day public know about the times when men fought with their hands and their heads, when the gods dominated cultures, and when love and faithfulness meant something. Strength was also a part of the Phaiakian’s competition. This is why Odysseus, Telemachus, and many, many other characters made so many sacrifices to the gods. Examples of this are when he tells Polyphemos the Cyclopes that his name is Nobody, when he overcomes Circe’s magic with the help of moly, when he fills his men’s ears with wax and ties himself to a post so that he and his men can get by the Sirens safely, and when he disguises himself as a beggar and reveals his true identity to few. And one odd thing: Another religious aspect of the Greek culture was prophecies. If you could manage to live without angering the gods, you'd be able to avoid suffering entirely. In the Odyssey, suffering doesn't serve a purpose: The Phaiakians were known for their terpsichorean skills, and as Odysseus said, wonder and awe cane to him when he watched the dancing (Bk. The two main prophets in The Odyssey were Teiresias and Theoklymenos. He also tests other individuals, such as the servants, to find if they are loyal to him or not. Physical characteristics were just as important to the Greeks as mental characteristics. They also believed that the gods’ wills could be turned with sacrifices. A lot. She sees him dying and gasping for breath, and winding her body about him she cries high and shrill, while the men behind her, hitting her with their spear butts on the back and the shoulders, force her up and lead her away into slavery, to have hard work and sorrow, and her cheeks are wracked with pitiful weeping. The suitors always eat and provide plenty, even though they eat Odysseus cattle and drink Odysseus’ wine. In Homer’s epic, The Odyssey, various aspects of the ancient Greeks are revealed through the actions, characters, plot, and wording. Athene, the goddess of wisdom, provides another example of the usage of wit and tricks. Hospitality also meant an ear for every word and respect for every word as well. You'd think that people who thought so much about daily suffering would come up with a better afterlife for themselves. Singers were well known and loved by all. They have many drinking contests to see who can drink the most, and usually, at the end the contestants usually become bacchanalian. Singing was also a well-loved recreation. An example of this is when she pretends to be weaving a shroud for Laertes, but actually undoes at night as much as she had done in the morning. II, 146 – 154), and two near the end, both to symbolize Odysseus’ triumph over the suitors. The ancient Greeks had an optimistic view on life, a view that makes nice, happy endings, but are unfortunately not very realistic. Another pastime that the Greeks enjoyed very much is feasting, or in crude terms, eating and drinking. XIII, 291 – 295). There are many, many examples of loyalty and faithfulness in The Odyssey. The Odyssey is a great work of a great poet, Homer, who not only captures the essence of the ancient Greek spirit and culture, but also tells a story that can be passed down from generation to generation, without any fear of growing old. Greek Life As Depicted in Homer\'s Epic: For if I wait out the uncomfortable night by the river, I fear that the female dew and the evil frost together will be too much for my damaged strength, I am so exhausted and in the morning a chilly wind will blow from the river; Strength was a common test and was used to gauge a man’s place in the real world.